Callicoon Township was until 1798 a part of the Town of Mamakating, 1798 – 1807 was part of the Town of Lumberland and until 1842 a part of the Town of Liberty.

In assembly, January 25, 1842. An act to erect the Town of Collikoon. The first town meeting was held the first Tuesday in May 1842, at the house of George G DeWitt, town clerk. The name Collikoon was used until 1852 when it was changed to Callicoon.

In 1851, the Town of Fremont was taken from Callicoon township territory. The Town of Collikoon was the last section of the county to be settled.

Callicoon, the word must be associated with beech trees growing on ridges along the stream, bearing plentiful crops of beechnuts which were the delight of wild turkeys that came to feed on these nuts, and that were so overcome with joy at this fine food to forget all caution and cackled or made such noises that wild turkeys make when pleased with a choice meal to the delight of the Hudson Valley dutchman who had no trouble getting his turkey or as many as he wanted to take home. Because of this, Callicoon came into being.

The Town of Callicoon offers many small hamlets as well as the village of Jeffersonville, surrounded by a rural setting. The town is mainly an agriculture community with rolling mountains and valleys which can be seen while driving our country roads.